goodfellow

Just submit to access the final stage of the Ultimate Pack.

Simply complete the form below and we’ll send over our five latest whitepapers in the next few minutes. Created by our technical specialists at Goodfellow, the documents have been created to help you no matter your industry or current project.



background

Lithium (Li)

lithium

History

Lithium is a soft, silver metal, and is the first member of the alkali group of metals. It is the lightest of all metals and, whilst resembling sodium chemically, it is less active. As is the case for other alkali group elements, it is obtained by the electrolysis of the fused halides. The abundance of lithium in the earth's crust is 20 ppm.

Did you know?

  1. Lithium was discovered in 1817 by J.A. Arfvedson in Stockholm, Sweden, and isolated by W.T. Brande in 1821.
  2. Lithium reacts slowly in water and in air where it eventually forms a black coating of oxide. This means that this metal tends to be stored under oil to prevent deterioration.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic Number 3
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.157
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 6.941
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure He 2s1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.39
    2 75.6
    3 122.4
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    6 7.5
    7 92.5
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 63
    Valences shown 1
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 9.29
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00435
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +1.82
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 11.1
    Hardness - Vickers <5
    Poisson's ratio 0.36
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 4.91
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1342
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 0.534
    Melting point ( C ) 180.5
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 56
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 19600
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 422
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 3560
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 84.8

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • rod
background

Sodium (Na)

sodium

History

Sodium is a soft, silvery coloured metal which, like other members of the alkali group of metals, is extremely reactive. As for the other members of the group, it can be prepared by electrolysis of the fused halide or hydroxide. Along with potassium, it is one of the more common alkali metals, there being 28300 ppm in the earth's crust, primarily as the carbonate, chloride or nitrate.

Did you know?

  1. Sodium was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphrey Davy in London.
  2. Molten sodium is used as a heat exchanger in certain types of nuclear reactors and as a reagent in the chemicals industry. Some of the sodium salts e.g. NaCl and NaCO3) are more important than the metal itself due to the variety of applications for which they can be used.
  3. Sodium is an essential element for all living species, including humans, although there is an element of controversy concerning the amount required. An average human body contains around 100 gms of sodium which are lost in various ways and have to be replenished. The average human consumes approximately 10 gms of salt per day although only around 3 gms are actually needed and an excess can contribute to high blood pressure. Sodium performs several functions within the body including the regulation of the water content in the blood and tissue and the transmission of electrical impulses.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic Number 31
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.192
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 22.99
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Ne 3s1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.14
    2 47.30
    3 71.64
    4 98.91
    5 138.39
    6 172.15
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    23 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 212
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.54
    Valences shown 1
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @27C ( µOhmcm ) 4.9
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0055
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 883
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 0.97
    Melting point ( C ) 97.8
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 71
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 4260
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 113
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 128

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • lump
background

Potassium (K)

potassium

History

Potassium is a soft, silvery coloured metal, which like other members of the alkali group of metals, is extremely reactive. As with other members of the group, it can be prepared by electrolysis of the fused halide. It is one of the more common alkali metals, there being 26000 ppm in the earth's crust, the main source being potassium chloride. It does not occur naturally.

Did you know?

  1. Potassium was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphrey Davy in London.
  2. Potassium has limited use as the pure metal, although it can be used with sodium as a coolant in liquid metal reactors. It is more commonly used as a salt; for example potassium bromide, which is used in photography, and potassium carbonate which has applications in the areas of fluxes, pharmaceuticals and soaps. One of the most important uses of potassium salts is as fertilisers.
  3. Potassium is an essential element for all living beings and, on average, a human being contains approximately 140 gm, the majority of which is present in muscle tissue.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 19
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.238
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 39.0983
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Ar 4s1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 4.34
    2 31.6
    3 45.7
    4 60.9
    5 82.7
    6 100
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    39 93.26
    40 0.01
    41 6.73
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.2
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 1.8
    Valences shown 1
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 6.8
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0057
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline @ -190C
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 3.1
    Hardness - Mohs 0.5
    Poisson's ratio 0.35
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 3.53
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 760
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 0.86
    Melting point ( C ) 63.25
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 83
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2033
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 61
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 753
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 102.5

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • lump
background

Rubidium (Rb)

rubidium

History

Rubidium is a soft and highly reactive member of the alkali group of metals. It is widely distributed throughout nature, but only occurs in small amounts (its abundance in the earth's crust is 310 ppm), the main source being carnallite, the hydrated chloride of magnesium and potassium.

Did you know?

  1. Discovered in 1861 by R.W. Bunsen and G. Kirchoff in Heidelberg, Germany.
  2. The metal is obtained by the electrolysis of the fused halide, although it can be obtained on a laboratory scale by heating the chloride with calcium metal and distilling out the metal. The metal ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water and applications are limited.
  3. Rubidium nitrate is sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple colour.
education image

Scientists Create Most Accurate Estimate of Earth's Composition

The new model suggests our home planet contains significantly more sodium, potassium, chlorine, zinc, strontium, fluorine, gallium, rubidium, niobium, gadolinium, tantalum, helium, argon, and krypton than previously believed.


Read More Here >>
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 37
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.251
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 85.4678
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Kr 5s1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 4.18
    2 27.3
    3 40.0
    4 52.6
    5 71.0
    6 84.4
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    85 72.17
    87 27.83
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.1
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.5
    Valences shown 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 12.1
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0048
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 2.5
    Hardness - Mohs 0.3
    Poisson's ratio 0.30
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 2.35
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 686
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.532
    Melting point ( C ) 38.89
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 9.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 887
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 25.7
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 360
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 58.2

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • lump
background

Caesium (Cs)

Caesium

History

Caesium is a soft metal which is often liquid at room temperature due to its relatively low melting point (28.5C). It is an extremely reactive metal, reacting violently in contact with water and being rapidly attacked in air. As with other alkaline group metals, caesium can be prepared by electrolysis of the fused halides but, in addition, it can also be prepared by heating the chloride with calcium and distilling out the molten metal. It is not a common element, its abundancy on Earth being 7 ppm.

Did you know?

  1. Discovered in 1860 by R. Bunsen and G. R. Kirchoff in Heidelberg, Germany.
  2. One of its most important uses is in the ‘caesium clock’ (atomic clock). These clocks are a vital part of the internet and mobile phone networks, as well as Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. They give the standard measure of time: the electron resonance frequency of the caesium atom is 9,192,631,770 cycles per second. Some caesium clocks are accurate to 1 second in 15 million years.
  3. Caesium is found in the minerals pollucite and lepidolite. Pollucite is found in great quantities at Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada and in the USA, and from this source the element can be prepared. However, most commercial production is as a by-product of lithium production.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 55
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.27
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 133
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 6s1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 3.89
    2 25.10
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    132.91 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.14
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 29
    Valences shown 1
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 20
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0044
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Hardness - Mohs 0.2
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 705
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.90
    Melting point ( C ) 28.5
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @1-26C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 97
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 611
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 15.78
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 230

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • lump
background

Francium (Fr)

Francium

History

Francium is an intensely radioactive metal. Francium has no known biological role. It is toxic due to its radioactivity.

Did you know?

  1. Francium has no uses, having a half life of only 22 minutes.
  2. Francium is obtained by the neutron bombardment of radium in a nuclear reactor. It can also be made by bombarding thorium with protons.
  3. According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Francium was finally discovered in 1939 by Marguerite Perey at the Curie Institute in Paris. She had purified a sample of actinium free of all its known radioactive impurities and yet its radioactivity still indicated another element was present, and which she rightly deduced was the missing element 87. Others challenged her results too, and it was not until after World War II that she was accepted as the rightful discoverer in 1946.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 87
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.27
    Atomic weight ( amu ) (233)
    Electronic structure Rn 7s1
    Valences shown 1
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 677
    Melting point ( C ) 27
  • Thermal Properties
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 287
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 9.4