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Beryllium (Be)

Beryllium

History

Beryllium is a light and lustrous metal which is obtained by the electrolysis of a fused halide (e.g. BeCl2). It is resistant to attack by air or water, even at elevated temperatures (red heat). Beryllium is non-magnetic, is a good thermal conductor and is used as an alloying addition to copper or nickel, the alloys having excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; in addition, when alloyed with nickel, the resultant Be/Ni alloy has the highest coefficient for secondary electron emission (12.3).

Did you know?

  1. Discovered in 1797 by N.L. Vauquelin in Paris, but not extracted until 1828 by Wöhler (Berlin) and A.A.B. Bussy (Paris).
  2. Applications for pure beryllium include its use as windows in X-ray tubes and as a source of neutrons when bombarded with alpha particles, a technique used by Chadwick in 1932 in their discovery. Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic, inhalation of the dust resulting in berylliosis, an inflammation of the lungs.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 4
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.113
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 9.01218
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure He 2s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 9.32
    2 18.2
    3 154
    4 218
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    9 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.4
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.0092
    Valences shown 2
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 3.3
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0090
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 0.026
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )     110
    Hardness - Vickers 150 200
    Poisson's ratio     0.02
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )     318
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 310 550
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 240 345
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2470
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.848
    Melting point ( C ) 1278
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 12.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 32470
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 1350
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 1825
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 201

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Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium

History

Magnesium is a brilliant white metal, which is relatively soft. It is one of the more abundant elements, there being 23000 ppm in the earth's crust. As a powder, magnesium is extremely reactive, but as a solid it oxidises slowly in air and reacts slowly in water.

It does not occur naturally, but is found in combination with other elements in minerals such as magnesite (MgCO3, primarily) and dolomite (the double carbonate of magnesium and calcium). As with other elements in groups 1 and 2 of the periodic table, it can be produced by electrolysis of the molten halide.

Did you know?

  1. Magnesium was recognised in 1755 by Joseph Black in Edinburgh, Scotland, and isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808 in London.
  2. Applications of magnesium include its use as a deoxidiser for copper, brass and nickel alloys and it is also added to several aluminium base alloys. It is the basis of strong, light alloys used in the aircraft and automobile industries (e.g. in engine assemblies). Alloys with zirconium and thorium have also been investigated for their use in aircraft manufacture. Pure magnesium can also be used as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  3. As magnesium ignites easily in air and burns with a bright light, it’s used in flares, fireworks and sparklers.
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Blood Levels of Magnesium May Predict Dementia Risk

The levels of magnesium in your blood may be linked to your risk of developing dementia later in life, a new study from the Netherlands finds.

Compared with people in the study who had high or low levels of the mineral in their blood, those with levels in the middle range were less likely to develop dementia, according to the study, which was published online today (Sept. 20) in the journal Neurology.


Read More Here >>
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 12
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.160
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 24.305
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Ne 3s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 7.65
    2 15.03
    3 80.1
    4 109
    5 141
    6 187
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    24 78.99
    25 10.00
    26 11.01
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.66
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.064
    Valences shown 2
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 4.2
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00425
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.44
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )     35.6
    Hardness - Vickers 30-35 35-45
    Poisson's ratio     0.291
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )     44.7
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 185 232
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 69 100
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1090
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.74
    Melting point ( C ) 649
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 26.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 5254
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 362
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 1020
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 156

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Calcium (Ca)

Calcium

History

Calcium is a silvery white metal which is obtained by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride. It is one of the most abundant metal elements on Earth (41000 ppm), but it never occurs as the pure element, the main deposits being limestone (CaCO3), Dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3) and Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O).

Calcium compounds have many applications; for example, calcium chloride is used extensively to dry gases as it is capable of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. Calcium oxide (lime), produced by heating limestone, has many applications including the chemical, agricultural, construction and water industries.

Did you know?

  1. Discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphrey Davy in London.
  2. Calcium is an essential constituent of the human body which contains, on average, 1kg. of the element.
  3. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) is used by builders as a plaster and by nurses for setting bones, as ‘plaster of Paris’.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 20
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.197
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 40.08
    Crystal structure Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Ar 4s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.11
    2 11.87
    3 50.9
    4 67.1
    5 84.4
    6 109
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    40 96.941
    42 0.647
    43 0.135
    44 2.086
    46 0.004
    48 0.187
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.87
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.44
    Valences shown 2
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 3.7
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00457
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) -0.51
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )     17.2
    Hardness - Vickers 17
    Poisson's ratio     0.31
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )     19.6
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 55 115
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 14 84.5
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1484
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.55
    Melting point ( C ) 839
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 22.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 3760
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 209
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 653
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 125

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Strontium (Sr)

Strontium

History

Strontium is a soft white metal which can be obtained by the high temperature reduction of SrO by Al, or by the electrolysis of the fused halide (a technique which can be used for the alkali group of metals). It has an abundance in the earth's crust of 370 ppm and is found naturally in celestine (strontium sulphate) and strontianite (strontium carbonate), the mineral in which strontium was originally discovered. It forms a protective stable oxide coating but it will burn in air and reacts with water.

Did you know?

  1. Strontium was recognised as an element in 1790 by A. Crawford and was isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808 in London.
  2. It’s name derives from the area in which this mineral is found, namely Strontian in Argyll, Scotland.
  3. The uses for strontium are limited but it is used to manufacture special grades of glass for televisions and monitors. Its compounds have a characteristic crimson colour and are used in fireworks and flares. Strontium has similar chemical properties to calcium and this means that it is able to enter the body in a similar manner. This can result in the destruction of bone marrow if strontium is taken into the bone in place of calcium.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 38
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.215
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 87.62
    Crystal structure Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Kr 5s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.70
    2 11.03
    3 43.6
    4 57.0
    5 71.6
    6 90.8
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    84 0.5
    86 9.9
    87 7.0
    88 82.6
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.59
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 1.21
    Valences shown 2
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 22.8
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0038
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 12.0
    Hardness - Mohs 1.8
    Poisson's ratio 0.28
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 15.7
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1375
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 2.6
    Melting point ( C ) 770
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @20C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 23
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1717
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 105
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 301
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 36.4
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Barium (Ba)

Barium

History

Elemental barium does not occur naturally although it has an abundance within the earth's crust of 500 ppm. It is obtained by heating BaO with Al and, once refined, barium is a silvery white, soft metal which oxidises readily in air and water.

Did you know?

  1. Barium compounds, particularly BaSO4, are used for various applications, including the manufacture of paint and as an addition to heavy duty drilling oils.
  2. All barium compounds are toxic; however, barium sulphate is insoluble and so can be safely swallowed. A suspension of barium sulphate is sometimes given to patients suffering from digestive disorders. This is a ‘barium meal’ or ‘barium enema’. Barium is a heavy element and scatters X-rays, so as it passes through the body the stomach and intestines can be distinguished on an X-ray.
  3. Discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphrey Davy in London, England.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 56
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.224
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 137.33
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.21
    2 10.0
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    130 0.1
    132 0.1
    134 2.4
    135 6.6
    136 7.9
    137 11.2
    138 71.7
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.5
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 1.2
    Valences shown 2
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 9.7
    Poisson's ratio 0.28
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 12.8
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1640
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 3.5
    Melting point ( C ) 725
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 18
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1100
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 55.8
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 192

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Radium (Ra)

Radium

History

Radium is a soft, shiny and silvery radioactive metal. According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Radium was discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie. They managed to extract 1 mg of radium from ten tonnes of the uranium ore pitchblende (uranium oxide, U3O8), a considerable feat, given the chemically methods of separation available to them. They identified that it was a new element because its atomic spectrum revealed new lines. Their samples glowed with a faint blue light in the dark, caused by the intense radioactivity exciting the surrounding air.

The metal itself was isolated by Marie Curie and André Debierne in 1911, by means of the electrolysis of radium chloride. At Debierne’s suggestion, they used a mercury cathode in which the liberated radium dissolved. This was then heated to distil off the mercury leaving the radium behind.

Did you know?

  1. Radium now has few uses, because it is so highly radioactive.
  2. Radium-223 is sometimes used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bones. Because bones contain calcium and radium is in the same group as calcium, it can be used to target cancerous bone cells. It gives off alpha particles that can kill the cancerous cells.
  3. Radium used to be used in luminous paints, for example in clock and watch dials. Although the alpha rays could not pass through the glass or metal of the watch casing, it is now considered to be too hazardous to be used in this way.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 88
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.223
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 226.03
    Electronic structure Rn 7s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.28
    2 10.15
    Valences shown 2
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1140
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 5.0
    Melting point ( C ) 700
  • Thermal Properties
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 605
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 37.0