goodfellow

Just submit to access the final stage of the Ultimate Pack.

Simply complete the form below and we’ll send over our five latest whitepapers in the next few minutes. Created by our technical specialists at Goodfellow, the documents have been created to help you no matter your industry or current project.



background

Lanthanum (La)

Lanthanum

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Lanthanum was discovered in January 1839 by Carl Gustav Mosander at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. He extracted it from cerium which had been discovered in 1803. Mosander noticed that while most of his sample of cerium oxide was insoluble, some was soluble and he deduced that this was the oxide of a new element. News of his discovery spread, but Mosander was strangely silent.

That same year, Axel Erdmann, a student also at the Karolinska Institute, discovered lanthanum in a new mineral from Låven island located in a Norwegian fjord.

Finally, Mosander explained his delay, saying that he had extracted a second element from cerium, and this he called didymium. Although he didn’t realise it, didymium too was a mixture, and in 1885 it was separated into praseodymium and neodymium.

Did you know?

  1. Lanthanum metal has no commercial uses. However, its alloys have a variety of uses. A lanthanum-nickel alloy is used to store hydrogen gas for use in hydrogen-powered vehicles. Lanthanum is also found in the anode of nickel metal hydride batteries used in hybrid cars.
  2. Lanthanum is an important component of mischmetal alloy (about 20%). The best-known use for this alloy is in ‘flints’ for cigarette lighters.
  3. ‘Rare earth’ compounds containing lanthanum are used extensively in carbon lighting applications, such as studio lighting and cinema projection. They increase the brightness and give an emission spectrum similar to sunlight.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 57
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.187
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 138.9055
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed/Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 5d1 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.58
    2 11.06
    3 19.18
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    138 0.09
    139 99.91
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.5
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 8.9
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 57
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00218
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 4.88
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 24.8
    Hardness - Vickers 40
    Poisson's ratio 0.28
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 37.9
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 131
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 124
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3457
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 6.174
    Melting point ( C ) 921
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 4.9
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2897
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 60.2
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 197
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 13.4

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • rod
  • powder
  • foil
  • lump
background

Cerium (Ce)

Cerium

About

Cerium was discovered in 1803 by J.J. Berzelius and W. Hisinger at Vestmanland, Sweden. However, it was first isolated by W.F. Hillebrand and T.H. Norton in 1875 in Washington DC, USA.

Cerium is a reactive grey metal and is one of the most abundant of the lanthanide group of metals, having an abundance of 68 ppm within the Earth's crust. It oxidises in air, ignites when heated and reacts rapidly in water and, hence, it must be stored in an air free environment. Cerium can be used as an alloying element with iron and other constituents to produce a flint material used in automatic ignition devices, and the addition of cerium to some metal alloys greatly improves their heat resistance. Cerium can also be used in vacuum apparatus as a "getter" for noble gases.

Did you know?

  1. Cerium(Ill) oxide has uses as a catalyst. It is used in the inside walls of self-cleaning ovens to prevent the build-up of cooking residues. It is also used in catalytic converters. Cerium(III) oxide nanoparticles are being studied as an additive for diesel fuel to help it burn more completely and reduce exhaust emissions.
  2. Cerium sulfide is a non-toxic compound that is a rich red colour. It is used as a pigment.
  3. Cerium is also used in flat-screen TVs, low-energy light bulbs and floodlights.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 58
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.182
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 140.12
    Crystal structure Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 4f2 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.47
    2 10.85
    3 20.20
    4 36.72
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    136 0.2
    138 0.3
    140 88.4
    142 11.1
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.9
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.73
    Valences shown 3, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 85.4
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0087
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +1.14
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Cast Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )   24.4
    Hardness - Vickers 25-30
    Poisson's ratio   0.248
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )   33.5
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 102
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 91
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3426
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 6.75
    Melting point ( C ) 799
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 8.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2680
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 37.3
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 205
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 11.3

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • rod
  • sputteringtarget
  • wire
background

Praseodymium (Pr)

Praseodymium

History

Praseodymium was discovered in 1805 by Baron Auer von Welsbach in Vienna, Austria.

Praseodymium is a soft, white metal and a member of the lanthanide group of elements. It closely resembles neodymium and, along with other elements of the same group, is found in the same minerals. It has an abundance in the earth's crust of 9.5 ppm. It reacts slowly with oxygen but rapidly with water.

Did you know?

  1. As a pure metal, its uses are limited; however, it is used as an alloying constituent for alloys used to make permanent magnets and flints. Along with neodymium, praseodymium is used to manufacture yellow glass which can be used as eye protection (e.g. for welders).
  2. Praseodymium is used in a variety of alloys. The high-strength alloy it forms with magnesium is used in aircraft engines. Mischmetal is an alloy containing about 5% praseodymium and is used to make flints for cigarette lighters. Praseodymium is also used in alloys for permanent magnets.
  3. Along with other lanthanide elements, it is used in carbon arc electrodes for studio lighting and projection.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 59
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.183
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 140.9077
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f3 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.42
    2 10.55
    3 21.62
    4 38.95
    5 57.45
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    141 100
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 11.5
    Valences shown 3, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 68
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00171
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 31.2
    Hardness - Vickers 40
    Poisson's ratio 0.312
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 35.2
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 110
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 103
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3512
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 6.782
    Melting point ( C ) 931
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 4.8
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2343
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 80
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 192
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 12.5

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • powder
  • foil
  • lump
  • rod
background

Neodymium (Nd)

Neodymium

History

Neodymium was separated in 1885 by Baron Auer von Weisbach.

Neodymium is one of the more reactive members of the lanthanide group. It oxidises rapidly in air to form an oxide which rapidly spalls away to reveal fresh metal. The metal reacts slowly with cold water and rapidly with hot water. The metal is found in monazite (CePO4, a principal source of the rare earths and thorium) and orthite. It has an abundance of 38 ppm in the earth's crust.

Did you know?

  1. The most important use for neodymium is in an alloy with iron and boron to make very strong permanent magnets. This discovery, in 1983, made it possible to miniaturise many electronic devices, including mobile phones, microphones, loudspeakers and electronic musical instruments. These magnets are also used in car windscreen wipers and wind turbines.
  2. Neodymium is a component, along with praseodymium, of didymium glass. This is a special glass for goggles used during glass blowing and welding. The element colours glass delicate shades of violet, wine-red and grey. Neodymium is also used in the glass for tanning booths, since it transmits the tanning UV rays but not the heating infrared rays.
  3. Neodymium glass is used to make lasers. These are used as laser pointers, as well as in eye surgery, cosmetic surgery and for the treatment of skin cancers.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 60
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.182
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 144.24
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f4 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.49
    2 10.72
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    142 27.2
    143 12.2
    144 23.8
    145 8.3
    146 17.2
    148 5.7
    150 5.6
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.2
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 49
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 64
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00164
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 33.3
    Hardness - Vickers 35
    Poisson's ratio 0.310
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 37.9
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 172
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 165
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3068
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 7.004
    Melting point ( C ) 1021
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 6.7
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2000
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 75
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 205
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 13

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • sputteringtarget
  • wire
  • rod
  • powder
background

Promethium (Pm)

Promethium

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, in 1902, Bohuslav Branner speculated that there should be an element in the periodic table between neodymium and samarium. He was not to know that all its isotopes were radioactive and had long disappeared. Attempts were made to discover it and several claims were made, but clearly all were false. However, minute amounts of promethium do occur in uranium ores as a result of nuclear fission, but in amounts of less than a microgram per million tonnes of ore.

In 1939, the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California was used to make promethium, but it was not proven. Finally element 61 was produced in 1945 by Jacob .A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Charles D. Coryell at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. They used ion-exchange chromatography to separate it from the fission products of uranium fuel taken from a nuclear reactor.

Did you know?

  1. Most promethium is used only in research. A little promethium is used in specialised atomic batteries. These are roughly the size of a drawing pin and are used for pacemakers, guided missiles and radios. The radioactive decay of promethium is used to make a phosphor give off light and this light is converted into electricity by a solar cell. Promethium can also be used as a source of x-rays and radioactivity in measuring instruments.
  2. Promethium’s longest-lived isotope has a half-life of only 18 years. For this reason it is not found naturally on Earth. It has been found that a star in the Andromeda galaxy is manufacturing promethium, but it is not known how.
  3. Promethium can be produced by irradiating neodymium and praseodymium with neutrons, deuterons and alpha particles. It can also be prepared by ion exchange of nuclear reactor fuel processing wastes.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 61
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.183
    Atomic weight ( amu ) (145)
    Electronic structure Xe 4f5 6f2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.55
    2 10.9
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @75C ( µOhmcm ) 27
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2460
    Density @27C ( g cm-3 ) 7.22
    Melting point ( C ) 1168
  • Thermal Properties
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1993
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 49.2
background

Samarium (Sm)

Samarium

History

Samarium was discovered in 1879 by P.E. Lecoq and was named after the mineral "Samarskite" which, in turn, was named after the Russian mine official, Colonel V.E. Samarsky.

A lanthanide group element, samarium is a silvery-white metal which is found in the minerals allanite, cerite, gadolinite and its namesake, samarskite; it has an abundance on earth of 7.9 ppm. It is relatively stable in dry air but oxidises on contact with moisture.

Did you know?

  1. Samarium-cobalt magnets are much more powerful than iron magnets. They remain magnetic at high temperatures and so are used in microwave applications. They enabled the miniaturisation of electronic devices like headphones, and the development of personal stereos. However, neodymium magnets are now more commonly used instead.
  2. Samarium is used to dope calcium chloride crystals for use in optical lasers. It is also used in infrared absorbing glass and as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. Samarium oxide finds specialised use in glass and ceramics. In common with other lanthanides, samarium is used in carbon arc lighting for studio lighting and projection.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 62
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.180
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 150.36
    Crystal structure Rhombohedral
    Electronic structure Xe 4f6 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.63
    2 11.07
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    144 3.1
    147 15.1
    148 11.3
    149 13.9
    150 7.4
    152 26.6
    154 22.6
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.7
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 5820
    Valences shown 2, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 92
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00148
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 29.9
    Poisson's ratio 0.310
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 34.1
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 124
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 110
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1791
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 7.536
    Melting point ( C ) 1077
  • Thermal Properties
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1280
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 72.4
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 180
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 13.3

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • rod
  • lump
  • foil
  • powder
background

Europium (Eu)

Europium

History

Discovered by E.A. Demarçay in 1901 in Paris, France.

The most reactive member of the lanthanide group of elements and one of the less abundant (2.1 ppm in the Earth's crust), europium is a ductile silvery metal which reacts rapidly with air and water.

As a result of its reactive nature, the metal has limited applications, but some is used in the manufacture of thin-film superconductor alloys. Europium is also used as control rod material in nuclear reactors due to its ability to absorb neutrons.

Did you know?

  1. Europium is used in the printing of euro banknotes. It glows red under UV light, and forgeries can be detected by the lack of this red glow.
  2. Low-energy light bulbs contain a little europium to give a more natural light, by balancing the blue (cold) light with a little red (warm) light.
  3. Europium is excellent at absorbing neutrons, making it valuable in control rods for nuclear reactors.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 63
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.204
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 151.96
    Crystal structure Body centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 4f7 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.67
    2 11.25
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    151 47.8
    153 52.2
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.5
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 4100
    Valences shown 2, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @25C ( µOhmcm ) 90.0
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0048
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 12.1
    Hardness - Vickers 20
    Poisson's ratio 0.286
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 14.7
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1597
    Density @25C ( g cm-3 ) 5.243
    Melting point ( C ) 822
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 32.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1155
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 63.4
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 176
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 13.9

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • sputteringtarget
  • powder
  • foil
  • wire
background

Gadolinium (Gd)

Gadolinium

History

Discovered in 1880 by J.C. Galissard in Geneva, Switzerland, and isolated by P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886 in Paris, France.

Gadolinium is a member of the lanthanide group of elements, and is obtained from the same sources as europium (its abundance in the Earth's crust is 7.7 ppm). It is a silvery white metal which is ductile and malleable. It is stable in a dry atmosphere but forms an oxide coating when exposed to moist air. It reacts slowly with water and is soluble in acids.

Did you know?

  1. Gadolinium has limited uses as a pure metal, but when alloyed with chromium, iron or similar metals, the resulting alloys have improved workability and corrosion resistance.
  2. Due to its magnetic properties, gadolinium is used in the manufacture of magnets, recording heads and electrical components. Its compounds are useful in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in diagnosing cancerous tumours.
  3. Gadolinium is excellent at absorbing neutrons, and so is used in the core of nuclear reactors.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 64
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.180
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 157.25
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f7 5d1 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.14
    2 12.1
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    152 0.2
    154 2.2
    155 14.8
    156 20.5
    157 15.7
    158 24.8
    160 21.8
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.1
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 49000
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 134
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00176
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 39.1
    Hardness - Vickers 55
    Poisson's ratio 0.26
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 56.2
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 193
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 179
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3266
    Density @25C ( g cm-3 ) 7.895
    Melting point ( C ) 1313
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 6.4
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1920
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 98.7
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 230
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 10.5

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • sputteringtarget
  • rod
  • foil
  • wire
background

Terbium (Tb)

Terbium

History

Terbium was discovered in 1843 by C.G. Mosander in Stockholm and was named after the Swedish town of Ytterby.

A lanthanide group metal, it is soft, malleable and ductile. Terbium has an abundance of 1.1 ppm in the earth's crust and is found in minerals in combination with other lanthanide group elements. It is slowly oxidised in air, the rate of the reaction being increased if terbium powder is used. Terbium reacts slowly with cold water.

Terbium is used in the semiconductor industry as a dopant.

Did you know?

  1. The metal is usually produced commercially by reducing the anhydrous fluoride or chloride with calcium metal, under a vacuum. It is also possible to produce the metal by the electrolysis of terbium oxide in molten calcium chloride.
  2. Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, all used in solid-state devices. It is also used in low-energy lightbulbs and mercury lamps. It has been used to improve the safety of medical x-rays by allowing the same quality image to be produced with a much shorter exposure time. Terbium salts are used in laser devices.
  3. An alloy of terbium, dysprosium and iron lengthens and shortens in a magnetic field. This effect forms the basis of loudspeakers that sit on a flat surface, such as a window pane, which then acts as the speaker.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 65
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.177
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 158.9254
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f9 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.85
    2 11.52
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    159 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.0
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 30
    Valences shown 3, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 116
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 40.8
    Hardness - Vickers 60
    Poisson's ratio 0.265
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 57.5
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3123
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 8.272
    Melting point ( C ) 1356
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 7.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1840
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 103
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 183
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 11.1

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • lump
  • powder
  • rod
background

Dysprosium (Dy)

Dysprosium

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Dysprosium was discovered in 1886 by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in Paris. Its discovery came as a result of research into yttrium oxide, first made in 1794, and from which other rare earths (aka lanthanoids) were subsequently to be extracted, namely erbium in 1843, then holmium in 1878, and finally dysprosium. De Boisbaudran’s method had involved endless precipitations carried out on the marble slab of his fireplace at home.

Pure samples of dysprosium were not available until Frank Spedding and co-workers at Iowa State University developed the technique of ion-exchange chromatography around 1950. From then on it was possible to separate the rare earth elements in a reliable and efficient manner, although that method of separation has now been superseded by liquid-liquid exchange technology.

Dysprosium is a silvery metal of the lanthanide group. It is relatively stable in air, reacts violently with water and dissolves in acids.

Did you know?

  1. As a pure metal it is little used, because it reacts readily with water and air. Dysprosium’s main use is in alloys for neodymium-based magnets. This is because it is resistant to demagnetisation at high temperatures. This property is important for magnets used in motors or generators. These magnets are used in wind turbines and electrical vehicles, so demand for dysprosium is growing rapidly.
  2. Dysprosium iodide is used in halide discharge lamps. The salt enables the lamps to give out a very intense white light.
  3. A dysprosium oxide-nickel cermet (a composite material of ceramic and metal) is used in nuclear reactor control rods. It readily absorbs neutrons, and does not swell or contract when bombarded with neutrons for long periods.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 66
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.177
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 162.50
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f1O 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.93
    2 11.67
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    156 0.06
    158 0.10
    160 2.34
    161 18.90
    162 25.50
    163 24.90
    164 28.20
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 930
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 91
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0012
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 39.2
    Hardness - Vickers 55
    Poisson's ratio 0.232
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 63.1
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 248
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 228
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2562
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 8.536
    Melting point ( C ) 1412
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 8.6
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1725
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 105
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 173
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 10.7

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • lump
  • wire
  • rod
background

Holmium (Ho)

Holmium

History

Discovered in 1878 by P.T. Cleve in Uppsala, Sweden, and independently in Geneva by M. Delafontaine and J-L Soret.

Holmium is a member of the lanthanide group and whose properties closely resemble those of erbium and dysprosium. It has an abundance of 1.4 ppm in the earth's crust. It is soft and malleable and is slowly attacked by oxygen and water. It is soluble in acids.

Did you know?

  1. Holmium can absorb neutrons, so it is used in nuclear reactors to keep a chain reaction under control. Its alloys are used in some magnets.
  2. Holmium was discovered at Geneva in 1878 by Marc Delafontaine and Louis Soret, and independently by Per Teodor Cleve at Uppsala, Sweden. Both teams were investigating yttrium, which was contaminated with traces of other rare earths (aka lanthanoids) and had already yielded erbium which was later to yield ytterbium. Cleve looked more closely at what remained after the ytterbium had been removed, and realised it must contain yet other elements because he found that its atomic weight depended on its source. He separated holmium from erbium in 1878. Delafontaine and Soret also extracted it from the same source, having seen unexplained lines in the atomic spectrum.
  3. We cannot be certain that either group had produced a pure sample of the new element because yet another rare-earth, dysprosium, was to be extracted from holmium.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 67
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.176
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 164.9304
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f11 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.02
    2 11.80
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    165 100
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 65
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 94
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00171
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 40.5
    Hardness - Vickers 60
    Poisson's ratio 0.225
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 66.9
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 262
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 221
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2695
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 8.803
    Melting point ( C ) 1474
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-400C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 9.5
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1695
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 104
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 165
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 16.2

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • powder
  • lump
  • foil
  • rod
background

Erbium (Er)

Erbium

History

Discovered by C.G. Mosander in 1842 in Stockholm, Sweden.

A member of the lanthanide group of elements, erbium is a silver grey metal. It has high electrical resistivity and has properties similar to holmium and dysprosium. It is always found in combination with other rare earths, being found in small quantities in the same minerals as dysprosium (gadolinite, fergusonite and xenotime); its abundance in the Earth's crust is 3.8 ppm. It slowly tarnishes in air, reacts slowly with water and dissolves in acids. It has limited applications as a pure metal, but is used as an alloying element with titanium and is also used to produce infra-red absorbing glass. Erbium oxide is used within the ceramics industry to produce a pink glaze.

Did you know?

  1. Erbium finds little use as a metal because it slowly tarnishes in air and is attacked by water. When alloyed with metals such as vanadium, erbium lowers their hardness and improves their workability.
  2. Erbium oxide is occasionally used in infrared absorbing glass, for example safety glasses for welders and metal workers. When erbium is added to glass it gives the glass a pink tinge. It is used to give colour to some sunglasses and imitation gems.
  3. Broadband signals, carried by fibre optic cables, are amplified by including erbium in the glass fibre.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 68
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.175
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 167.26
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f12 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.10
    2 11.93
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    162 0.1
    164 1.6
    166 33.4
    167 22.9
    168 27.0
    170 15.0
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 160
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 86
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00201
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 41.8
    Hardness - Vickers 70
    Poisson's ratio 0.207
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 73.3
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 292
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 292
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2863
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 9.051
    Melting point ( C ) 1529
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 9.2
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1680
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 103
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 168
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 14.5

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • lump
  • rod
  • powder
background

Thulium (Tm)

Thulium

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Thulium was first isolated in 1879 as its oxide by Per Teodor Cleve at the University of Uppsala, Sweden. The discoveries of the many rare earth elements (aka lanthanoid) began with yttrium in 1794. This was contaminated with these chemically similar elements. Indeed the early chemists were unaware they were there. In 1843, erbium and terbium were extracted from yttrium, and then, in 1874, Cleve looked more closely at erbium and realised that it must contain yet other elements because he observed that its atomic weight varied slightly depending on the source from which it came. He extracted thulium from it in 1879.

Did you know?

  1. When irradiated in a nuclear reactor, thulium produces an isotope that emits x-rays. A ‘button’ of this isotope is used to make a lightweight, portable x-ray machine for medical use. Thulium is used in lasers with surgical applications.
  2. In 1911, the American chemist Theodore William Richards performed 15,000 recrystallisations of thulium bromate in order to obtain an absolutely pure sample of the element and so determine exactly its atomic weight.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 69
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.174
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 168.9342
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f13 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.18
    2 12.05
    3 23.71
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    169 100
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 115
    Valences shown 2, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 90
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00195
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 40.5
    Hardness - Brinell 53
    Poisson's ratio 0.235
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 76
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1947
    Density @25C ( g cm-3 ) 9.322
    Melting point ( C ) 1545
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-400C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 11.6
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 1456
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 109
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 160
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 16.9

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • foil
  • lump
  • sputteringtarget
  • rod
background

Ytterbium (Yb)

Ytterbium

History

Ytterbium was discovered in 1878 by J.C.G. de Marignac in Geneva, Switzerland.

Ytterbium is a soft, silvery-white metal of the lanthanide group. It has an abundance of 3.3 ppm in the earth's crust and is always found in combination with other lanthanides. The metal is soft and malleable, oxidises slowly in air and reacts with water. Applications of the metal are limited, research being the principal area of its use.

Did you know?

  1. Ytterbium is beginning to find a variety of uses, such as in memory devices and tuneable lasers.
  2. It can also be used as an industrial catalyst and is increasingly being used to replace other catalysts considered to be too toxic and polluting.

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • powder
  • foil
  • lump
background

Lutetium (Lu)

Lutetium

History

Discovered in 1907 by G. Urbain in Paris, France, and, independently, by C. James at the University of New Hampshire, USA.

Lutetium is the hardest, densest and one of the rarest of the lanthanide group of elements (it has an abundance of 0.51 ppm in the earth's crust). It is found in some of the less common minerals (e.g. gadolinite and xenotime) and is difficult to isolate.

Did you know?

  1. In common with many other lanthanides, the main source of lutetium is the mineral monazite. It is extracted, with difficulty, by reducing the anhydrous fluoride with calcium metal.
  2. Lutetium is little used outside research. One of its few commercial uses is as a catalyst for cracking hydrocarbons in oil refineries.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 71
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.173
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 174.967
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f14 5d1 6s2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.43
    2 13.9
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    175 97.4
    176 2.6
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.3
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 75
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 68
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0024
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 0.1
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 42
    Hardness - Vickers 85
    Poisson's ratio 0.223
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 84
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 3395
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 9.842
    Melting point ( C ) 1663
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-400C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 12.5
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2155
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 110
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 155
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 16.4

Our Products

Click below to buy this element. We stock and supply the following standard forms:

  • powder
  • foil
  • lump