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Aluminium (Al)

Aluminium

History

Aluminium was discovered by Hans Oersted in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1825.

Aluminium is a silvery white reactive metal which is usually covered by a tenacious oxide coating. This renders it inert to acids, but it is attacked by alkalies. It is the most common metallic element in the earth's crust (82000 ppm) and is extracted from the hydrated oxide, Bauxite, by electrolysis of the oxide dissolved in molten sodium hexafluoroaluminate (cryolite).

The metal has good thermal properties and is malleable and ductile. Aluminium and its alloys are widely used for various applications including aircraft assemblies and engine parts.

Did you know?

  1. It is often used as an alloy because aluminium itself is not particularly strong. Alloys with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon are lightweight but strong. They are very important in the construction of aeroplanes and other forms of transport.
  2. Aluminium is a good electrical conductor and is often used in electrical transmission lines. It is cheaper than copper and weight for weight is almost twice as good a conductor.
  3. When evaporated in a vacuum, aluminium forms a highly reflective coating for both light and heat. It does not deteriorate, like a silver coating would. These aluminium coatings have many uses, including telescope mirrors, decorative paper, packages and toys.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 13
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.143
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 26.98154
    Crystal structure Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Ne 3s2 3p1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.99
    2 18.8
    3 28.4
    4 120
    5 154
    6 190
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    27 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.2
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.232
    Valences shown 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 2.67
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0045
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 1.175
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.42
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )     75.2
    Hardness - Vickers 21 35-48
    Poisson's ratio     0.345
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )     70.6
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 50-90 130-195
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 10-35 110-170
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2467
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 2.70
    Melting point ( C ) 660.4
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 23.5
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 10800
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 388
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 900
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 237
  • Properties for Aluminium Honeycomb
    Property Value
    Cell Size mm 19 6.3 13 4.8 3.2 6.3
    Compressive Strength MPa 0.7 2.1 2.9 3.5 3.7 4.6
    Density g cm-3 0.029 0.054 0.062 0.07 0.072 0.083
    Plate Shear Modulus - Longitudinal MPa 120 270 310 360 370 430
    Plate Shear Modulus - Transverse MPa 70 170 200 225 230 270
    Plate Shear Strength - Longitudinal MPa 0.6 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.9
    Plate Shear Strength - Transverse MPa 0.45 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.8
    Wall Thickness mm 0.064 0.038 0.102 0.038 0.025 0.064

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Gallium (Ga)

Gallium

About

Gallium was discovered in 1875 by P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran in Paris, France.

One of four metals which can be liquid at room temperature, gallium has the longest liquid range of any metal (2175 C). Below its melting point, it is a soft, silvery white metal which is stable in both air and water. Gallium, along with indium and thallium which follow gallium in their group in the periodic table, is only found as a minor constituent of various minerals and has an abundance of 18 ppm in the earth's crust. Extraction of the element is achieved by electrolytic reduction in aqueous solution. Gallium is used in the semiconductor industry due to its semiconductor properties of alloys formed with phosphorus, arsenic and antimony. It is also used in the manufacture of light emitting diodes and microwave equipment.

Did you know?

  1. Gallium was discovered in Paris by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. He observed a new violet line in the atomic spectrum of some zinc he had extracted from a sample of zinc blende ore (ZnS) from the Pyrenees. He knew it meant that an unknown element was present. What Boisbaudran didn’t realise was that its existence, and properties, had been predicted by Mendeleev whose periodic table showed there was a gap below aluminium which was yet to be occupied. He forecast that the missing element’s atomic weight would be around 68 and its density would be 5.9 g/cm3.
  2. Gallium arsenide has a similar structure to silicon and is a useful silicon substitute for the electronics industry. It is an important component of many semiconductors. It is also used in red LEDs (light emitting diodes) because of its ability to convert electricity to light. Solar panels on the Mars Exploration Rover contained gallium arsenide.
  3. Gallium nitride is also a semiconductor. It has particular properties that make it very versatile. It has important uses in Blu-ray technology, mobile phones, blue and green LEDs and pressure sensors for touch switches.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 31
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.135
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 69.72
    Crystal structure Orthorhombic
    Electronic structure Ar 3d1O 4s2 4p1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.99
    2 20.51
    3 30.71
    4 64.0
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    69 60
    71 40
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.2
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 3.1
    Valences shown 2, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 15.5
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.004
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 1.08
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Hardness - Mohs 1.5-2.5
    Poisson's ratio 0.47
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 9.81
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2205
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 5.904
    Melting point ( C ) 29.8
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 18.3
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 3984
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 80.1
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 330
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 33-41

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Indium (In)

Indium

History

Indium was discovered in 1863 by F. Reich and H. Richter in Freiberg, Germany.

Indium derives its name from the characteristic indigo line in its spectrum. It is a soft, malleable and ductile metal which is generally unaffected by air or water but is soluble in acids. It is found only in the form of minor components of various minerals (as are gallium and thallium, other members of the boron group of elements in the periodic table) and the pure element is produced by electrolytic reduction in aqueous solution. It has an abundance in the earth's crust of 0.049 ppm.

Indium has a large cross-section for slow neutrons and is, therefore, readily activated. Indium is used in the forms of InAs and InSb within the semiconductor industry in thermistors and transistors. As a result of its physical properties, it is particularly suited to being used as a sealing material in vacuum systems and also as bonding material in acoustic transducers. Indium is also widely used in the manufacture of "fusible" materials, a range of alloys which have low melting points and can be used as thermal fuses and solders.

Did you know?

  1. Most indium is used to make indium tin oxide (ITO), which is an important part of touch screens, flatscreen TVs and solar panels. This is because it conducts electricity, bonds strongly to glass and is transparent.
  2. Indium metal sticks to glass and can be used to give a mirror finish to windows of tall buildings, and as a protective film on welders’ goggles. It has also been used to coat ball bearings in Formula 1 racing cars because of its low friction.
  3. An indium alloy has been used for fire-sprinkler systems in shops and warehouses because of its low melting point.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 49
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.157
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 114.82
    Crystal structure Face centred tetragonal
    Electronic structure Kr 4d1O 5s2 5p1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 5.79
    2 18.9
    3 28.0
    4 54
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    113 4.3
    115 95.7
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.12
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 194
    Valences shown 1, 2, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 8.8
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0052
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 3.41
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.69
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Soft Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )   35.3
    Hardness - Vickers <10
    Poisson's ratio   0.45
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )   10.6
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 2.6-4.5
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2080
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 7.3
    Melting point ( C ) 156.6
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 24.8
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2024
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 28.5
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 234
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 81.8

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Tin (Sn)

Tin

History

Tin was known and used by ancient civilisations.

Tin is a silvery white metal which is soft and pliable, and which emits the characteristic sound of "tin cry" when bent. It is a relatively common element, its abundance being 2.2 ppm in the earth's crust. Its principal ore is cassiterite, SnO2, from which the metal is obtained by reduction. Tin forms a stable oxide coating on its surface which makes it unreactive in water; however, it is soluble in both acids and alkalis, and reacts readily with halogens.

As tin has good chemical resistance, it is used as a coating of other metals to prevent corrosion, the coating of steel to produce tin plate being an important example of this application. Tin is widely used in the manufacture of soft solders where it is alloyed with other elements to produce a wide range of alloys with different characteristics. Tin is also a constituent of bronzes, pewter, certain bearing materials and fusible alloys.

Did you know?

  1. Most window glass is made by floating molten glass on molten tin to produce a flat surface. Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings.
  2. The most important tin salt used is tin(II) chloride, which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant for dyeing calico and silk. Tin(IV) oxide is used for ceramics and gas sensors. Zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) is a fire-retardant used in plastics.
  3. Some tin compounds have been used as anti-fouling paint for ships and boats, to prevent barnacles. However, even at low levels these compounds are deadly to marine life, especially oysters. Its use has now been banned in most countries.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 50
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.158
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 118.69
    Crystal structure Tetragonal
    Electronic structure Kr 4d1O 5s2 5p2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 7.34
    2 14.63
    3 30.5
    4 40.7
    5 72.3
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    112 1.0
    114 0.7
    115 0.4
    116 14.7
    117 7.7
    118 24.3
    119 8.6
    120 32.4
    122 4.6
    124 5.6
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.3
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.63
    Valences shown 2, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 12.6
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0046
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 3.722
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.42
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 58.2
    Hardness - Mohs 1.5-1.8
    Poisson's ratio 0.357
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 49.9
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 2270
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 7.28
    Melting point ( C ) 231.9
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 23.5
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 2497
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 59.6
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 213
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 66.8
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Thallium (Tl)

Thallium

History

Thallium was discovered in 1861 by W. Crookes in London, and isolated by C.A. Lamy the following year in Paris.

Thallium is a soft, silvery-grey, reactive metal which is only found as a minor constituent of various minerals (it has an abundance of 0.6 ppm in the earth's crust), from which the metal is obtained by electrolytic reduction in aqueous solution. Thallium tarnishes readily in moist air and reacts with steam to form TlOH. It is readily soluble in acids, particularly HNO3, and is highly toxic. As a result of its toxicity, thallium is rarely used, with the exception of the manufacture of special grades of glass. In the past, thallium compounds found applications as diverse as rat poisons and hair restorers!

Did you know?

  1. The use of thallium is limited as it is a toxic element. Thallium sulphate was employed as a rodent killer – it is odourless and tasteless – but household use of this poison has been prohibited in most developed countries.
  2. Most thallium is used by the electronics industry in photoelectric cells. Thallium oxide is used to produce special glass with a high index of refraction, and also low melting glass that becomes fluid at about 125K.
  3. An alloy of mercury containing 8% thallium has a melting point 20°C lower than mercury alone. This can be used in low temperature thermometers and switches.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 81
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.171
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 204.383
    Crystal structure Hexagonal close packed
    Electronic structure Xe 4f14 5d1O 6s2 6p1
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 6.11
    2 20.4
    3 29.8
    4 50.7
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    203 29.5
    205 70.5
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 3.8
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 3.4
    Valences shown 1, 3
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 16.6
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0052
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 2.38
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.58
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 28.5
    Hardness - Brinell 2.0
    Poisson's ratio 0.45
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 7.9
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 8.96
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1457
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 11.85
    Melting point ( C ) 303.5
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 30.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 813
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 21.0
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 128
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 46.1
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Lead (Pb)

lead

History

Lead has been known of and used since prehistoric times.

Lead is a soft, malleable and ductile metal. It has an abundance in the earth's crust of 14 ppm., the main source of the metal being the ore "galena", lead (II) sulphide (PbS) which occurs as grey cubic crystals, often in conjunction with "sphalerite", the equivalent sulphide of zinc.

Lead oxidises readily in moist air, is stable to oxygen and water, but dissolves in nitric acid. It is a poor electrical and thermal conductor but has reasonable corrosion resistance. Applications for this metal are wide and varied; for example, its relative imperviousness to radiation makes it ideal as radiation shielding material for use with X-ray equipment. Lead is also used in ceramic glazes, batteries, paints, as a fuel additive in petrol (lead tetraethyl) and as a prime constituent of soft solders. However, its use is now being discouraged as lead is now known to be detrimental to health, particularly to that of children.

Did you know?

  1. Lead has been mined for more than 6,000 years, and the metal and its compounds have been used throughout history. Small lead nuggets have been found in pre-Columbian Peru, Yucatan, and Guatemala.
  2. The Greeks mined lead on a large scale from 650 onwards and not only knew how to obtain the metal but how to covert this to white lead. Because of its superb covering power, this was the basis of paints for more than 2000 years, until the middle of the last century.
  3. The Romans employed lead on a large scale, mining it mainly in Spain and Britain, and using it also for water pipes, coffins, pewter tableware, and to debase their silver coinage. While its mining declined in the Dark Ages it reappeared in Medieval times and found new uses, such as pottery glazes, bullets, and printing type. In the last century it was a fuel additive.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 82
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.175
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 207.2
    Crystal structure Face centred cubic
    Electronic structure Xe 4f14 5d1O 6s2 6p2
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 7.42
    2 15.03
    3 31.9
    4 42.3
    5 68.8
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    204 1.4
    206 24.1
    207 22.1
    208 52.4
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.0
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.18
    Valences shown 2, 4
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 20.6
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0042
    Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 7.196
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.44
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Sand cast Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa )   45.8
    Hardness - Mohs 1.5
    Poisson's ratio   0.44
    Tensile modulus ( GPa )   16.1
    Tensile strength ( MPa ) 12
    Yield strength ( MPa ) 5.5
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1740
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 11.35
    Melting point ( C ) 327.5
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 29.0
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 862
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 23.2
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 159
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 35.3

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Bismuth (Bi)

Bismuth

History

Discovered in the fifteenth century, although its discoverer is not known.

Bismuth is a brittle metal which is silvery in colour with a pink tinge. It is stable in air and water. It has poor thermal and electrical properties and finds applications in the manufacture of fusible alloys, a range of materials with low melting points which are suitable for various applications including solders and thermal fuses. Pure bismuth shows a high absorption of gamma rays which makes it useful as a filter or window for these particles, whilst at the same time permitting the passage of neutrons.

Did you know?

  1. Bismuth metal is brittle and so it is usually mixed with other metals to make it useful. Its alloys with tin or cadmium have low melting points and are used in fire detectors and extinguishers, electric fuses and solders.
  2. Bismuth oxide is used as a yellow pigment for cosmetics and paints, while bismuth(III) chloride oxide (BiClO) gives a pearly effect to cosmetics. Basic bismuth carbonate is taken in tablet or liquid form for indigestion as ‘bismuth mixture’.
  3. Bismuth was used as an alloying metal in the bronze of the Incas of South America around 1500 AD. Bismuth was not mined as ore but appears to have occurred as the native metal.
  • Atomic Properties
    Atomic number 83
    Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.182
    Atomic weight ( amu ) 208.9804
    Crystal structure Rhombohedral
    Electronic structure Xe 4f14 5d1O 6s2 6p3
    Ionisation potential No. eV
    1 7.29
    2 16.7
    3 25.6
    4 45.3
    5 56.0
    6 88.3
    Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
    209 100
    Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.4
    Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.034
    Valences shown 3, 5
  • Electrical Properties
    Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 117
    Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0046
    Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) -7.34
  • Mechanical Properties
    Material condition Polycrystalline
    Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 31.3
    Hardness - Vickers 16-19
    Poisson's ratio 0.33
    Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 34.0
  • Physical Properties
    Boiling point ( C ) 1560
    Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 9.80
    Melting point ( C ) 271.3
  • Thermal Properties
    Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 13.4
    Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 857
    Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 52
    Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 124
    Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 7.9

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Nihonium (Nh)

Nihonium

History

IUPAC confirmed the discovery (by scientists from RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) in Japan) in 2015.

Did you know?

  1. A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.
  • Key Information
    Atomic number 113
    Melting Point Unknown
    Boiling Point Unknown
    Relative Atomic Mass [286]
    State at 20C Solid
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Flerovium (Fl)

Flerovium

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, there are four known isotopes of flerovium with mass numbers 286-289. The longest-lived is 289 and it has a half-life of 2.6 seconds. Nuclear theory suggests that isotope 298, with 184 neutrons, should be much more stable but that has yet to be made.

Did you know?

  1. A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.
  2. Despite several attempts to make element 114, it was only in 1998 that a team led by Yuri Oganessian and Vladimir Utyonkov at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Russia produced it by bombarding plutonium with calcium. It needed 5 billion billion (5 x 1018) atoms of calcium to be fired at the target to produce a single atom of flerovium, in an experiment lasting 40 days. A few more two atoms were produced the following year.
  • Key Information
    Atomic number 114
    Melting Point Unknown
    Boiling Point Unknown
    Relative Atomic Mass [289]
    State at 20C Solid
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Moscovium (Mc)

Moscovium

History

According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, IUPAC confirmed the discovery (by scientists from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, USA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, USA) in 2015.

Did you know?

  1. Moscovium is a highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.
  • Key Information
    Atomic number 114
    Melting Point Unknown
    Boiling Point Unknown
    Relative Atomic Mass [289]
    State at 20C Solid
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Livermorium (Lv)

Livermorium

History

Four isotopes of this element have been produced and they have mass numbers 290-293. The longest-lived is 293 with a half-life of 61 milliseconds.

There were several attempts to make element 116 but all were unsuccessful until 2000 when researchers at the Joint International Nuclear Research (JINR) in Russia, led by Yuri Oganessian, Vladimir Utyonkov, and Kenton Moody observed it. Because the discovery was made using essential target material supplied by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the USA, it was decided to name it after that facility.

Did you know?

  1. In 1999, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California had announced the discovery of element 116 but then it was discovered that evidence had simply been concocted by one of their scientists, and so the claim had to be withdrawn.
  2. Livermorium does not occur naturally. It is made by bombarding curium atoms with calcium. The most stable isotope has a half-life of about 53 milliseconds.
  • Key Information
    Atomic number 116
    Melting Point Unknown
    Boiling Point Unknown
    Relative Atomic Mass [293]
    State at 20C Solid
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Tennessine (Ts)

Tennessine

History

IUPAC confirmed the discovery (by scientists from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, USA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, USA) in 2015.

Did you know?

  1. Tennessine's most stable isotope, tennessine-294, has a half-life of about 80 milliseconds. It decays into moscovium-290 through alpha decay. Since only a few atoms of tennessine have ever been produced, it currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.
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The 4 Newest Elements on The Periodic Table Have Been Named

Tennessine is named after the state of Tennessee, known for its pioneering research in chemistry. "Tennessine is in recognition of the contribution of the Tennessee region, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, to superheavy element research," says the IUPAC.


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  • Key Information
    Atomic number 117
    Melting Point Unknown
    Boiling Point Unknown
    Relative Atomic Mass [294]
    State at 20C Solid